Edwards syndrome is a hereditary disorder. It is the almost popular autosomal trisomy after Down Syndrome that carries to term. Edwards’ syndrome is caused by an additional transcript of chromosome 18. For this cause, it is too called trisomy 18 syndrome.
The extra chromosome is lethal for most babies born with this condition. Major causes of death include apnea and heart abnormalities. A chromosome is a rod-like structure present in the nucleus of all body cells, with the exception of the red blood cells,and which stores genetic information. It is impossible to predict the exact prognosis of an Edwards Syndrome child during pregnancy or the neonatal period. Edward’s syndrome also results in significant developmental delays. For this reason a full-term Edward’s syndrome baby may well exhibit the breathing and feeding difficulties of a premature baby.
Edwards syndrome causes leading physical abnormalities and serious psychological retardation, and really few children afflicted with this disease endure beyond a year. Women old than their earlier thirties have a greater danger of conceiving a kid with trisomy 18, but it can happen in younger women. Surviving children with Edwards’ syndrome have marked developmental and motor delays. Their verbal communication is severely impaired, and is limited to a few single words at best, but they are mostly aware of their environment and are able to communicate some of their needs non-verbally. Affected people have two copies of chromosome 18, plus extra material from chromosome 18 attached to another chromosome.
Most children born with Edwards’ syndrome seem feeble and delicate, and they are frequently underweight. The chief is remarkably tiny and the rear of the chief is outstanding. The ears are malformed and low-set, and the lip and jaw are tiny. Frequently, the hands are clenched into fists, and the index finger overlaps the other fingers. The child may have clubfeet and toes may be webbed or fused. Abnormalities often occur in the lungs and diaphragm, and heart defects and blood vessel malformations are common. The child may also have malformed kidneys and abnormalities of the urogenital system. Infants born with Edwards syndrome also have mental retardation, heart defects, and other organ malformations such that most systems of the body are affected.
There is no cure for Edwards’ syndrome. Treatment of the child is supportive but life sustaining measures are not recommended. Considerable thought and discussion is recommended before undertaking measures such as surgical correction of abnormalities. In most cases, only analgesia is offered to a child with Edwards’ syndrome. Abnormalities can be treated to a certain degree with surgery, but extreme invasive procedures may not be in the best interests of an infant whose lifespan is measured in days or weeks. Medical therapy often consists of supportive care with the goal of making the infant comfortable, rather than prolonging life. An enema should not given to the baby or child because it can deplete electrolytes and alter body fluid composition.